Following is a list of important terms that used in the field of hacking..
Attack is an organized attempt to cause a person or organization that is done on a system to get its access or harm. For example, a DoS attack is designed to cause a reduction of performance or fully take down a website
Backdoor is also known as trapdoor. Backdoor is a technique to undetectable entry to a system that bypassed security mechanisms. To access the system or its data. A programmer may sometimes install a back door. So that the program can be accessed for troubleshooting or other purposes. However, attackers often use back doors that they detect or install themselves, as part of an exploit.
Brute Force Attack
Brute Force Attack may have a dictionary of all words or commonly used passwords and cycle. Through those words attackers try to bypass the password to gains access to the account. Brute Force Attack consists of an attacker trying many passwords or passphrases with the hope of eventually guessing correctly. The attacker systematically checks all possible passwords and passphrases until the correct one is found. Alternatively, the attacker can attempt to guess the key which is typically created from the password using a key derivation function. This is known as an exhaustive key search.
A cracker is someone who breaks into a secure computer system with the purpose to breach or bypass internet security or copyrighted software. A cracker is doing this for profit or sometime it’s done to point out weaknesses of the security.
Bot is a program that automates an action that allowing an attacker to take complete control over an affected computer for the criminal to control remotedly. It can be done repeatedly at a much higher rate for a more sustained period than a human operate could do it.
An exploit is a piece of software, a chunk of data, or a sequence of commands. That takes advantage of a weakness in an operating system or vended application program to compromise the security of a network system.
Denial of Service Attack (DoS)
A DoS attack is any type of attack where the attackers(hackers) attempt to make a server or a network resource unavailable to users from accessing the service. DoS is typically accomplished by flooding the targeted machine or resource with traffic or superfluous requests in an attempt to overload systems and make it difficult or impossible for the users to use them.
Distribute Denial of Service Attack (DDoS)
DDoS is a type of DoS where multiple compromised systems attack a target, such as server, website or other network resource which are often infected with a Trojan and causing a DoS attack.
A keylogger is a software program or hardware device that has the capability to record every strokes on a keyboard without the knowledge of the user. A keylogger can record instant messages,e-mail, and any information that type at any time using the victim keyboard.
Malicious Software in short Malware. It is specially designed to damage , disrupt and authorized access to a system. When malware gets installed in your system they perform unwanted tasks that harm your machine in different types. Categories of malware are viruses, spyware, adware, trojan horses, worms and so on….
Logic Bomb also called Slug code. It is a small piece of code that inserted into a operating system or system software intentionally. To perform malicious activities when specific condition is satisfied. For example, a programmer may hide a piece of code that perform malicious tasks(such as deleting important files) should they ever be terminated from the company.
Phishing is a type of social engineering attack in which attackers try to obtain victim personal information such as credit cards details, login password, username and so on for malicious purpose. Attackers done phishing in different methods in which one mostly used method is sending email or message.
Social Engineering is a way to manipulating people with the purpose to obtain confidential information or personal information such as credit card details, passwords and so on. Famous types of social engineering attacks are baiting, phishing, spear phishing, pretexting, spare-ware.
Spoofing is a technique in which intruder use ip address to sends messages to a computer system indicating that the message is coming from a trusted host. It used to gain the unauthorized access to systems. Types of spoofing are : Address Resolution Protocol(ARP) spoofing, Domain Name System(DNS) spoofing and IP spoofing.
SQL injection is a code injection technique, in which attackers inject malicious codes in SQL(Structured Query Language) statements to manipulate your database revealing information.
A Trojan or Trojan Horse is a malicious program that hackers used to remotely, unauthorized access to a victim computer.
A spam is simply an unsolicited email, also known as junk email, sent to a large number of recipients without their consent.
A virus is a malicious program, script or macro which is capable of copying itself to another programs and typically has a detrimental effect, such as corrupting the system or destroying data. It is mainly designed to steal information, modify data
A worm is self-replicating malicious program that duplicates itself in order to spread to another computers. Worms does not alter files but resides in active memory and duplicates itself.
Adware is a software that designed to automatically displays or downloads advertising material such as banners or pop-ups. It works when a user is online.
A Botnet is a network of zombie computers programmed to receive commands without the owners knowledge.
Vulnerability is a security weakness in a system, network, application software etc. which allow hacker to compromise the security of a computer or network system.
Spyware is type of malware that aim to gather information about a person or a organization without their knowledge. Spyware may be installed on a system often hidden from the user and record all activites.